Research Studies done on Microwave Radiation

First study on humans

Johansson O, “Elöverkänslighet samt överkänslighet mot mobiltelefoner: Resultat från en dubbel-blind provokationsstudie av metodstudiekaraktär”
(=Electrohypersensitivity and sensitivity to mobile telephones: Results from a double-blind provocation study of pilot character”, in Swedish), Enheten för Experimentell Dermatologi, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Rapport nr. 2, 1995, ISSN 1400-6111

Cancer studies

Szmigielski S, “Cancer morbidity in subjects occupationally exposed to high frequency (radiofrequency and microwave) electromagnetic radiation”, Sci Total Environ 1996; 180: 9-17

Adey WR, Byus CV, Cain CD, Higgins RJ, Jones RA, Kean CJ, Kuster N, MacMurray A, Stagg RB, Zimmerman G, Phillips JL, Haggren W, “Spontaneous and nitrosourea-induced primary tumors of the central nervous system in Fischer 344 rats chronically exposed to 836 MHz modulated microwaves”, Radiat Res 1999; 152: 293-302

Adey WR, Byus CV, Cain CD, Higgins RJ, Jones RA, Kean CJ, Kuster N, MacMurray A, Stagg RB, Zimmerman G, “Spontaneous and nitrosourea-induced primary tumors of the central nervous system in Fischer 344 rats exposed to frequency-modulated microwave fields”, Cancer Res 2000; 60: 1857-1863

Hardell L, Nasman A, Pahlson A, Hallquist A, “Case-control study on radiology work, medical x-ray investigations, and use of cellular telephones as risk factors for brain tumors”, MedGenMed 2000; E2

Hardell L, Mild K H, Pahlson A, Hallquist A, “Ionizing radiation, cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours”, Eur J Cancer Prev 2001; 10: 523-529

Hardell L, Hallquist A, Mild KH, Carlberg M, Pahlson A, Lilja A, “Cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours”, Eur J Cancer Prev 2002; 11: 377-386

Hardell L, Mild KH, Carlberg M, “Case-control study on the use of cellular and cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain tumours”, Int J Radiat Biol 2002; 78: 931-936

Microwaves as stressors/non-thermal effects

Daniells C, Duce I, Thomas D, Sewell P, Tattersall J, de Pomerai D, “Transgenic nematodes as biomonitors of microwave-induced stress”, Mutat Res 1998; 399: 55-64

de Pomerai D, Daniells C, David H, Allan J, Duce I, Mutwakil M, Thomas D, Sewell P, Tattersall J, Jones D, Candido P, “Non-thermal heat-shock response to microwaves”, Nature 2000; 405: 417-418


Sarkar S, Ali S, Behari J, “Effect of low power microwave on the mouse genome: a direct DNA analysis”, Mutat Res 1994; 320: 141-147 [Obs! Verkan sedd vid gällande 3G-rekommendation = 10W/m2]

Lai H, Singh NP, “Single- and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation”, Int J Radiat Biol 1996; 69: 513-521

Lai H, Singh NP, “Melatonin and a spin-trap compound block radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in rat brain cells”, Bioelectromagnetics 1997; 18: 446-454

Phillips JL, Ivaschuk O, Ishida-Jones T, Jones RA, Campbell-Beachler M, Haggren W, “DNA damage in Molt-4 T-lymphoblastoid cells exposed to cellular telephone radiofrequency fields in vitro”, Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 1998; 45: 103-110

Pacini S, Ruggiero M, Sardi I, Aterini S, Gulisano F, Gulisano M, “Exposure to global system for mobile communication (GSM) cellular phone radiofrequency alters gene expression, proliferation, and morphology of human skin fibroblasts”, Oncol Res 2002; 13: 19-24

Trosic I, Busljeta I, Kasuba V, Rozgaj R, “Micronucleus induction after whole-body microwave irradiation of rats”, Mutat Res 2002; 521: 73-79

The REFLEX study

Long-term exposure

Repacholi MH, Basten A, Gebski V, Noonan D, Finnie J, Harris AW, “Lymphomas in Eµ-Pim1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields”, Radiat Res 1997; 147: 631-640

Sykes PJ, McCallum BD, Bangay MJ, Hooker AM, Morley AA, “Effect of exposure to 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation on intrachromosomal recombination in pKZ1 mice”, Radiat Res 2001; 156: 495-502

Santini R, Seigne M, Bonhomme-Faivre L, Bouffet S, Defrasne E, Sage M, “Symptoms experienced by users of digital cellular phones: A study of a French engineering school”, Electromagn Biol Med 2002; 21: 81-88

Mast cell effects/importance for hypersensitivity/allergy/irradiation damage/cancer

Johansson O, Liu P-Y, “”Electrosensitivity”, “electrosupersensitivity” and “screen dermatitis”: preliminary observations from on-going studies in the human skin”, In: Proceedings of the COST 244: Biomedical Effects of Electromagnetic Fields – Workshop on Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (ed. D Simunic), EU/EC (DG XIII), Brussels/Graz, 1995, pp 52-57

Donnellan M, McKenzie DR, French PW, “Effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation at 835 MHz on growth, morphology and secretory characteristics of a mast cell analogue, RBL-2H3″, Cell Biol Int 1997; 21: 427-439

Harvey C, French PW, “Effects on protein kinase C and gene expression in a human mast cell line, HMC-1, following microwave exposure”, Cell Biol Int 1999; 23: 739-748

Gangi S, Johansson O, “A theoretical model based upon mast cells and histamine to explain the recently proclaimed sensitivity to electric and/or magnetic fields in humans”, Med Hypotheses 2000; 54: 663-671

Johansson O, Gangi S, Liang Y, Yoshimura K, Jing C, Liu P-Y, “Cutaneous mast cells are altered in normal healthy volunteers sitting in front of ordinary TVs/PCs – results from open-field provocation experiments”, J Cutan Pathol 2001; 28: 513-519

Kimata H, “Enhancement of allergic skin wheal responses by microwave radiation from mobile phones in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome”, Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002; 129: 348-350

Johansson O, “Screen dermatitis and electrosensitivity: Preliminary observations in the human skin”, In: Electromagnetic Environments and Health in Buildings (ed. D Clements-Croome), Spon Press, London & New York, 2004, pp 377-389

Johansson O, “Elöverkänslighet – en form av strålskada” (=”Electrohypersensitivity – a kind of irradiation damage”, in Swedish), Tf-bladet 2004; (3): 12-13

Johansson O, “Electrohypersensitivity: Observations in the human skin of a physical impairment”, Symposium on “Electrical Sensitivity in Human Beings”, Royal Society of Medicine, London, U.K., September 11, 2004 (extend. abstr.)

Johansson O, “Electrohypersensitivity: Observations in the human skin of a physical impairment”, WHO Workshop on “Electrical Hypersensitivity”, Prague, Czech Republic, October 25-27, 2004 (extend. abstr.)

Johansson O, “Elektro-Hypersensitivität: Beobachtungen von physikalischen Schäden an der menschlichen Haut”, “2nd National Congress for Afflicted Persons by Electrosmog”, Olten, Switzerland, November 13, 2004 (extend. abstr.)

Rajkovic V, Matavulj M, Johansson O, “Histological characteristics of cutaneous and thyroid mast cell populations in male rats exposed to power-frequency electromagnetic fields”, Int J Radiat Biol 2004, re-submitted

Rajkovic V, Matavulj M, Johansson O, “The effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on skin and thyroid amine- and peptide-containing cells in rats. An immunohistochemical and morphometrical study”, Environ Health 2005, re-submitted

Rajkovic V, Matavulj M, Johansson O, “An immunohistochemical and morphometrical study of the power-frequency electromagnetic field influence on skin and thyriod amine- and peptide-containing cells in rats”, BioEM 2005, Dublin, Ireland, June 19-24, 2005 (abstr.)


Lai H, Horita A, Guy AW, “Microwave irradiation affects radial-arm maze performance in the rat”, Bioelectromagnetics 1994; 15: 95-104

Krause CM, Sillanmäki L, Koivisto M, Häggqvist A, Saarela C, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hämäläinen H, “Effects of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on the EEG during a memory task”, NeuroReport 2000; 11: 761-764

Croft R, Chandler J, Burgess A, Barry R, Williams J, Clarke A, “Acute mobile phone operation affects neural function in humans”, Clin Neurophysiol 2002; 113: 1623

Huber R, Treyer V, Borbely AA, Schuderer J, Gottselig JM, Landolt HP, Werth E, Berthold T, Kuster N, Buck A, Achermann P, “Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG”, J Sleep Res 2002; 11: 289-295


Borbély AA, Huber R, Graf T, Fuchs B, Gallmann E, Achermann P, “Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram”, Neurosci. Lett. 1999; 275: 207-210

Hamblin DL, Wood AW, “Effects of mobile phone emissions on human brain activity and sleep variables”, Int J Radiat Biol 2002; 78: 659-669

Huber R, Treyer V, Borbely AA, Schuderer J, Gottselig JM, Landolt HP, Werth E, Berthold T, Kuster N, Buck A, Achermann P, “Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG”, J Sleep Res 2002; 11: 289-295

Eye cancer

Stang A, Anastassiou G, Ahrens W, Bromen K, Bornfeld N, Jöckel K-H, “The possible role of radiofrequency radiation in the development of uveal melanoma”, Epidemiology 2001; 12: 7-12

Blood-brain barrier/nerve cell damage

Albert EN, Grau L, Kerns J, “Morphologic alterations in hamster blood-brain barrier after microwave irradiation”, J Microw Power 1977; 12: 43-44

Albert EN, “Light and electron microscopic observation on the blood-brain barrier after microwave irradiation”, In: Symp Biol Eff Measure Radiofr/Microwaves, FDA 77-8026 (ed. DG Hazzard), HEW Publications, Washington, DC, 1977, pp 294-304

Persson BR, Salford LG, Brun A, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, “Increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier induced by magnetic and electromagnetic fields”, Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992; 649: 356-358

Salford LG, Brun A, Sturesson K, Eberhardt JL, Persson BR, “Permeability of the blood-brain barrier induced by 915 MHz electromagnetic radiation, continuous wave and modulated at 8, 16, 50, and 200 Hz”, Microsc Res Tech 1994; 27: 535-542

Persson B, Salford LG, Brun A, “Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication”, Wireless Network 1997; 3: 455-461

Leszczynski D, Joenvaara S, Reivinen J, Kuokka R, “Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects”, Differentiation 2002; 70: 120-129

Salford LG, Brun AE, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BRR, “Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones”, Environmental Health Perspectives, doi:10.1289/ehp.6039 (available at, 29 January 2003

Influence on bacteria

Shcheglov V, Alipov E, Belyaev I, “Cell-to-cell communication in response of E. coli cells at different phases of growth to low-intensity microwaves”, Biochim Biophys Acta 2002; 1572: 101

Base stations/cellular phones/health effects

Santini R, “Cellular telephones and their relay stations: a health risk?” (in French), Presse Med 1999; 28: 1884-1886

Santini R, Seigne M, Bonhomme-Faivre L, “Danger of cellular telephones and their relay stations” (in French), Pathol Biol (Paris) 2000; 48: 525-528

Santini R, Santini P, Seigne M, Danze JM, “Symptoms notified by people living near cell phone relay stations” (in French), Presse Med 2001; 30: 1594

Santini R, Santini P, Danze JM, Le Ruz P, Seigne M, “Investigation on the health of people living near mobile telephone relay stations: I/Incidence according to distance and sex” (in French), Pathol Biol (Paris) 2002; 50: 369-373

Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, “Does GSM 1800 MHz affect the public health in Sweden?”, In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop “Biological Effects of EMFs”, Kos, Greece, October 4-8, 2004

Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, “1997 – A curious year in Sweden”, Eur J Cancer Prev 2004; 13: 535-538

Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, “Long-term sickness and mobile phone use”, J Aust Coll Nutr & Env Med, 2004; 23: 11-12

Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, “Mobile handset output power and health”, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 2004; 23: 229-239

Radio-/TV-masts/cancer/health effects

Goldsmith JR, “TV broadcast towers and cancer: The end of innocence for radiofrequency exposures”, Am J Ind Med 1997; 32: 689-692

Magras IN, Xenos TD, ” RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice”, Bioelectromagnetics 1997; 18: 455-461

Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, “Melanoma incidence and frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting”, Arch Environ Health 2002; 57: 32-40

Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, “Har tusentals personer offrats i onödan sedan 1955?” (=”Have thousands of persons unnecessarily been sacrificed since 1955?”; in Swedish), Nord Tidsskr Biol Med 2002; 2: 26-27

Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, “Cancerdödlighet och långtidssjukskrivning” (=”Cancer mortality and long-term sick leave”; in Swedish), Tidskriften Medikament 2002; 7: 40-41

Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, “Cancer trends during the 20th century”, J Aust Coll Nutr & Env Med 2002; 21: 3-8

Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, “Malignant melanoma of the skin – not a sunshine story!”, Med Sci Monit 2004; 10: CR336-340

Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, “FM broadcasting exposure time and malignant melanoma incidence”, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 2004, accepted for publication


Södergren L, Johansson O, “Commentary: Mobile telephones – will the golden goose become the mad cow?”, J Aust Coll Nutr & Env Med 2001; 20: 29-30

Bistolfi F, “Are microvilli and cilia sensors of electromagnetic fields?”, Physica Medica 2002; 18: 85-94

Weinberger Z, Richter ED, “Cellular telephones and effects on the brain: The head as an antenna and brain tissue as a radio receiver”, Med Hypotheses 2002; 59: 703-705

The Stewart Report (no. 2; no. 1 December 2000)